Holocaust Curriculum for Middle School and High School 7-12 (Part 2)

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Holocaust Curriculum for Middle School

Holocaust Curriculum for Middle School

for Human Rights and Genocide

Published for the California State Board of Education

Part 1 of the Holocaust Curriculum for K-6th Grade.

Grade Seven

7.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages.

  1. Trace the origins of Islam and the life and teachings of Muhammad, including Islamic teachings on the connection with Judaism and Chris­tianity.
  2. Explain the significance of the Qur’an and the Sunnah as the primary sources of Islamic beliefs, practice, and law, and their influence in Muslims’ daily life.

7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe.

  1. Know the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practices and their importance in the rise of modern democratic thought and representative institutions (e.g., Magna Carta, parliament, development of habeas corpus, an independent judiciary in England).
  2. Discuss the causes and course of the religious Crusades and their effects on the Christian, Muslim, and Jewish populations in Europe, with emphasis on the increasing contact by Europeans with cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean world.

Holocaust Curriculum for Middle School

Grade Eight

Students understand the major events preceding the founding of the nation and relate their significance to the development of American constitutional democracy.

1. Analyze the philosophy of government expressed in the Declaration of Independence, with an emphasis on government as a means of securing individual rights (e.g., key phrases such as “all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights”).

Students analyze the political principles underlying the U.S. Consti­tution and compare the enumerated and implied powers of the federal government.

      1. Discuss the significance of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the Mayflower Compact.
      2. Analyze the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution and the success of each in implementing the ideals of the Declaration of Indepen­dence.
      3. Evaluate the major debates that occurred during the development of the Constitution and their ultimate resolutions in such areas as shared power among institutions, divided state-federal power, slavery, the rights of individuals and states (later addressed by the addition of the Bill of Rights), and the status of American Indian nations under the commerce clause.
      4. Understand the significance of Jefferson’s Statute for Religious Freedom as a forerunner of the First Amendment and the origins, purpose, and differing views of the founding fathers on the issue of the separation of church and state.
  1. Enumerate the powers of government set forth in the Constitution and the fundamental liberties ensured by the Bill of Rights.

 

    • Students analyze the divergent paths of the American people in the South from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced.

1. Trace the origins and development of slavery; its effects on black Americans and on the region’s political, social, religious, economic, and cultural development; and identify the strategies that were tried to both overturn and preserve it (e.g., through the writings and historical docu­ments on Nat Turner, Denmark Vesey).

    1. Students analyze the divergent paths of the American people in the West from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced.

1. Describe the purpose, challenges, and economic incentives associated with westward expansion, including the concept of Manifest Destiny (e.g.,the Lewis and Clark expedition, accounts of the removal of Indians, the Cherokees’ “Trail of Tears,” settlement of the Great Plains) and the territorial acquisitions that spanned numerous decades.

2. Describe the Texas War for Independence and the Mexican-American War, including territorial settlements, the aftermath of the wars, and the effects the wars had on the lives of Americans, including Mexican Americans today.

Students analyze the early and steady attempts to abolish slavery and to realize the ideals of the Declaration of Independence.

      1. Describe the leaders of the movement (e.g., John Quincy Adams and his proposed constitutional amendment, John Brown and the armed resistance, Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad, Benjamin Franklin, Theodore Weld, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass).
      2. Discuss the abolition of slavery in early state constitutions.
      3. Describe the significance of the Northwest Ordinance in education and in the banning of slavery in new states north of the Ohio River.
      4. Discuss the importance of the slavery issue as raised by the annexation of Texas and California’s admission to the union as a free state under the Compromise of 1850.
      5. Analyze the significance of the States’ Rights Doctrine, the Missouri Compromise (1820), the Wilmot Proviso (1846), the Compromise of 1850, Henry Clay’s role in the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), the Dred Scott v. Sandford decision (1857), and the Lincoln-Douglas debates (1858).
      6. Describe the lives of free blacks and the laws that limited their freedom and economic opportunities.

Students analyze the character and lasting consequences of Recon­struction.

      1. List the original aims of Reconstruction and describe its effects on the political and social structures of different regions.
      2. Identify the push-pull factors in the movement of former slaves to the cities in the North and to the West and their differing experiences in those regions (e.g., the experiences of Buffalo Soldiers).
      3. Understand the effects of the Freedmen’s Bureau and the restrictions placed on the rights and opportunities of freedmen, including racial segregation and “Jim Crow” laws.
      4. Trace the rise of the Ku Klux Klan and describe the Klan’s effects.
      5. Understand the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution and analyze their connection to Reconstruction.

Students analyze the transformation of the American economy and the changing social and political conditions in the United States in response to the Industrial Revolution.

1. Identify the reasons for the development of federal Indian policy and the wars with American Indians and their relationship to agricultural devel­opment and industrialization.

  1. Discuss child labor, working conditions, and laissez-faire policies toward big business and examine the labor movement, including its leaders (e.g.,Samuel Gompers), its demand for collective bargaining, and its strikes and protests over labor conditions.
  2. Identify the new sources of large-scale immigration and the contributions of immigrants to the building of cities and the economy; explain the ways in which new social and economic patterns encouraged assimilation of newcomers into the mainstream amidst growing cultural diversity; and discuss the new wave of nativism.

Grade Ten

Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to the develop­ment of Western political thought.

      1. Analyze the similarities and differences in Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman views of law, reason and faith, and duties of the individual.
      2. Trace the development of the Western political ideas of the rule of law and illegitimacy of tyranny, using selections from Plato’s Republic and Aristotle’s Politics.
      3. Consider the influence of the U.S. Constitution on political systems in the contemporary world.

Students compare and contrast the Glorious Revolution of England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution and their enduring effects worldwide on the political expectations for self- government and individual liberty.

  1. List the principles of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights (1689), the American Declaration of Independence (1776), the French Declara­tion of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789), and the U.S. Bill of Rights (1791).

Students analyze patterns of global change in the era of New Imperialism in at least two of the following regions or countries: Africa, Southeast Asia, China, India, Latin America, and the Philip- pines.

  1. Explain imperialism from the perspective of the colonizers and the colonized and the varied immediate and long-term responses by the people under colonial rule.
  2. Describe the independence struggles of the colonized regions of the world, including the roles of leaders, such as Sun Yat-sen in China, and the roles of ideology and religion.
    1. Students analyze the causes and course of the First World War.
  3. Discuss human rights violations and genocide, including the Ottoman government’s actions against Armenian citizens.

Students analyze the rise of totalitarian governments after World War I.

      1. Understand the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution, including Lenin’s use of totalitarian means to seize and maintain control (e.g., the Gulag).
      2. Trace Stalin’s rise to power in the Soviet Union and the connection between economic policies, political policies, the absence of a free press, and systematic violations of human rights (e.g., the Terror Famine in Ukraine).
      3. Analyze the rise, aggression, and human costs of totalitarian regimes (Fascist and Communist) in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union, noting especially their common and dissimilar traits.

Students analyze the causes and consequences of World War II.

      1. Compare the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s, including the 1937 Rape of Nanking, other atrocities in China, and the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939.
  1. Describe the political, diplomatic, and military leaders during the war (e.g., Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Emperor Hirohito, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower).
  2. Analyze the Nazi policy of pursuing racial purity, especially against the European Jews; its transformation into the Final Solution; and the Holocaust that resulted in the murder of six million Jewish civilians.
  3. Discuss the human costs of the war, with particular attention to the civilian and military losses in Russia, Germany, Britain, the United States, China, and Japan.

Students analyze the international developments in the post–World War II world.

  1. Analyze the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Tse-tung, and the subsequent political and economic upheavals in China (e.g., the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and the Tiananmen Square uprising).
  2. Describe the uprisings in Poland (1952), Hungary (1956), and Czechoslo­vakia (1968) and those countries’ resurgence in the 1970s and 1980s as people in Soviet satellites sought freedom from Soviet control.

3. Analyze the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union, including the weakness of the command economy, burdens of military commitments, and growing resistance to Soviet rule by dissidents in satellite states and the non-Russian Soviet republics.

Holocaust Curriculum for Middle School and High School

Grade Eleven

    1. Students analyze the role religion played in the founding of America, its lasting moral, social, and political impacts, and issues regarding religious liberty.
      1. Describe the contributions of various religious groups to American civic principles and social reform movements (e.g., civil and human rights, individual responsibility and the work ethic, antimonarchy and self-rule, worker protection, family-centered communities).
  1. Cite incidences of religious intolerance in the United States (e.g., perse­ cution of Mormons, anti-Catholic sentiment, anti-Semitism).
  2. Discuss the expanding religious pluralism in the United States and California that resulted from large-scale immigration in the twentieth century.
  3. Describe the principles of religious liberty found in the Establishment and Free Exercise clauses of the First Amendment, including the debate on the issue of separation of church and state.

11.5 Students analyze the major political, social, economic, technologi­ cal, and cultural developments of the 1920s.

1. Analyze the international and domestic events, interests, and philoso­ phies that prompted attacks on civil liberties, including the Palmer Raids, Marcus Garvey’s “back-to-Africa” movement, the Ku Klux Klan, and immigration quotas and the responses of organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union, the National Association for the Advance­ ment of Colored People, and the Anti-Defamation League to those attacks.

2. Analyze the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment and the changing role of women in society.

11.7 Students analyze America’s participation in World War II.

  1. Identify the roles and sacrifices of individual American soldiers, as well as the unique contributions of the special fighting forces (e.g., the Tuskegee Airmen, the 442nd Regimental Combat team, the Navajo Code Talkers).
  2. Analyze Roosevelt’s foreign policy during World War II (e.g., Four Free­ doms speech).
  3. Discuss the constitutional issues and impact of events on the U.S. home front, including the internment of Japanese Americans (e.g., Fred Korematsu v. United States of America) and the restrictions on German and Italian resident aliens; the response of the administration to Hitler’s atrocities against Jews and other groups; the roles of women in military production; and the roles and growing political demands of African Americans.
    1. Students analyze the development of federal civil rights and voting rights.
      1. Explain how demands of African Americans helped produce a stimulus for civil rights, including President Roosevelt’s ban on racial discrimina­ tion in defense industries in 1941, and how African Americans’ service in World War II produced a stimulus for President Truman’s decision to end segregation in the armed forces in 1948.
  1. Examine and analyze the key events, policies, and court cases in the evolution of civil rights, including Dred Scott v. Sandford, Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, and California Proposition 209.
  2. Describe the collaboration on legal strategy between African American and white civil rights lawyers to end racial segregation in higher educa­ tion.
  3. Examine the roles of civil rights advocates (e.g., A. Philip Randolph, Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcom X, Thurgood Marshall, James Farmer, Rosa Parks), including the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” and “I Have a Dream” speech.
  4. Discuss the diffusion of the civil rights movement of African Americans from the churches of the rural South and the urban North, including the resistance to racial desegregation in Little Rock and Birmingham, and how the advances influenced the agendas, strategies, and effectiveness of the quests of American Indians, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Ameri­ cans for civil rights and equal opportunities.
  5. Analyze the passage and effects of civil rights and voting rights legislation (e.g., 1964 Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act of 1965) and the Twenty- Fourth Amendment, with an emphasis on equality of access to education and to the political process.
  6. Analyze the women’s rights movement from the era of Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Anthony and the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the movement launched in the 1960s, including differing perspectives on the roles of women.

 

    1. Students analyze the major social problems and domestic policy issues in contemporary American society.
      1. Discuss the reasons for the nation’s changing immigration policy, with emphasis on how the Immigration Act of 1965 and successor acts have transformed American society.
      2. Discuss the significant domestic policy speeches of Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton (e.g., with regard to education, civil rights, economic policy, environmental policy).

Grade Twelve

    1. Students explain the fundamental principles and moral values of American democracy as expressed in the U.S. Constitution and other essential documents of American democracy.
      1. Analyze the influence of ancient Greek, Roman, English, and leading European political thinkers such as John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Niccolò Machiavelli, and William Blackstone on the devel­ opment of American government.
      2. Discuss the character of American democracy and its promise and perils as articulated by Alexis de Tocqueville.
  1. Explain how the U.S. Constitution reflects a balance between the classical republican concern with promotion of the public good and the classical liberal concern with protecting individual rights; and discuss how the basic premises of liberal constitutionalism and democracy are joined in the Declaration of Independence as “self-evident truths.”Explain how the Founding Fathers’ realistic view of human nature led directly to the establishment of a constitutional system that limited the power of the governors and the governed as articulated in the Federalist Papers.
  2. Describe the systems of separated and shared powers, the role of organized interests (Federalist Paper Number 10), checks and balances (Federalist Paper Number 51), the importance of an independent judiciary (Federalist Paper Number 78), enumerated powers, rule of law, federalism, and civilian control of the military.
  3. Understand that the Bill of Rights limits the powers of the federal government and state governments.
    1. Students evaluate and take and defend positions on the scope and limits of rights and obligations as democratic citizens, the relation- ships among them, and how they are secured.
      1. Discuss the meaning and importance of each of the rights guaranteed under the Bill of Rights and how each is secured (e.g., freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, petition, privacy).
      2. Explain how economic rights are secured and their importance to the individual and to society (e.g., the right to acquire, use, transfer, and dispose of property; right to choose one’s work; right to join or not join labor unions; copyright and patent).
      3. Discuss the individual’s legal obligations to obey the law, serve as a juror, and pay taxes.
      4. Understand the obligations of civic-mindedness, including voting, being informed on civic issues, volunteering and performing public service, and serving in the military or alternative service.
      5. Describe the reciprocity between rights and obligations; that is, why enjoyment of one’s rights entails respect for the rights of others.
      6. Explain how one becomes a citizen of the United States, including the process of naturalization (e.g., literacy, language, and other require­ ments).
    2. Students evaluate and take and defend positions on what the fundamental values and principles of civil society are (i.e., the autonomous sphere of voluntary personal, social, and economic relations that are not part of government), their interdependence, and the meaning and importance of those values and principles for a free society.
      1. Explain how civil society provides opportunities for individuals to asso­ ciate for social, cultural, religious, economic, and political purposes.
      2. Explain how civil society makes it possible for people, individually or in association with others, to bring their influence to bear on government in ways other than voting and elections.
      3. Discuss the historical role of religion and religious diversity.
      4. Compare the relationship of government and civil society in constitutional democracies to the relationship of government and civil society in authoritarian and totalitarian regimes.
    3. Students summarize landmark U.S. Supreme Court interpretations of the Constitution and its amendments.
      1. Understand the changing interpretations of the Bill of Rights over time, including interpretations of the basic freedoms (religion, speech, press, petition, and assembly) articulated in the First Amendment and the due process and equal-protection-of-the-law clauses of the Fourteenth Amend­ ment.

2. Explain the controversies that have resulted over changing interpreta­ tions of civil rights, including those in Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, Miranda v. Arizona, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, and United States v. Virginia (VMI).

    1. Students analyze the origins, characteristics, and development of different political systems across time, with emphasis on the quest for political democracy, its advances, and its obstacles.
      1. Explain how the different philosophies and structures of feudalism, mercantilism, socialism, fascism, communism, monarchies, parliamen­ tary systems, and constitutional liberal democracies influence economic policies, social welfare policies, and human rights practices.
      2. Compare the various ways in which power is distributed, shared, and limited in systems of shared powers and in parliamentary systems, including the influence and role of parliamentary leaders (e.g., William Gladstone, Margaret Thatcher).
  1. Describe for at least two countries the consequences of conditions that gave rise to tyrannies during certain periods (e.g., Italy, Japan, Haiti, Nigeria, Cambodia).
  2. Identify the forms of illegitimate power that twentieth-century African, Asian, and Latin American dictators used to gain and hold office and the conditions and interests that supported them.
  3. Identify the ideologies, causes, stages, and outcomes of major Mexican, Central American, and South American revolutions in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
  4. Describe the ideologies that give rise to Communism, methods of main­ taining control, and the movements to overthrow such governments in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland, including the roles of individuals (e.g., Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Pope John Paul II, Lech Walesa, Vaclav Havel).
  5. Identify the successes of relatively new democracies in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the ideas, leaders, and general societal conditions that have launched and sustained, or failed to sustain, them.

Holocaust Middle School Resources

German Propaganda Archive at Calvin College.  The German Propaganda Archive includes both propaganda itself and material produced for the guidance of propagandists. The goal is to help people understand the two great totalitarian systems of the twentieth century by giving them access to the primary material.

Ghetto Fighters Kibbutz. The Ghetto Fighters’ House – Itzhak Katzenelson Holocaust and Jewish Resistance Heritage Museum was founded in 1949 by a community of Holocaust survivors, members of the Jewish underground in the ghettos of Poland, and veterans of partisan units, to be a place of testimony that would tell the story of the Jewish People in the 20th century in general, and during the Second World War in particular.

Raphael Lemkin on Genocide – Key Writings. An online collection of writings by the man who coined the word “genocide.” The collection spans the years from 1933-1947 and includes items in English, French, German and Spanish. This collection is a resource for all who want to understand the origins of the concept of genocide and the efforts of Raphael Lemkin to have genocide recognized as an international crime. It also includes an overall introduction, a brief commentary on each document and chronology of Lemkin’s life.