Horthy, Miklós (1868-1957):
Born in 1868, Miklós Horthy was the regent of Hungary between 1920 and 1944. He was the military leader of the “White Terror” of 1919, a counter- revolutionary campaign against the socialist regime of Béla Kun. After the occupying Romanians were evacuated, Horthy became regent of Hungary on March 1st, 1920.
Foreign and domestic policies between the wars were motivated by a fervent desire to recover territories the country had lost in the Trianon settlement of 1920.
Although Horthy authorized a series of harsh anti-Jewish laws, he resisted Hitler’s pressure to ban Jews from all economic activities, to gather Jews into ghettos or to deport Jews to camps.
After German forces occupied Hungary in March, 1944, Horthy nominated a pro-German government that was given total control of anti-Jewish measures. On July 7th, after half a million Jews had been deported and under pressure from Allied countries such as Sweden and the United States, Horthy ordered that the deportation of Jews stop.
When Horthy attempted a separate armistice for Hungary on October 15th, 1944, he was ousted and replaced by Ferenc Szálasi. After the war, the allies allowed Horthy to go to Portugal.