Hannah Rosen’s Diary


Excerpts From

“The Diary of Hannah Rosen:
Europe’s Jews and America’s Response, 1937-1945”

by Elizabeth S. Rothschild

Presented as a Junior Division Individual Historical Paper

Plus Interviews with Jan Karski, John Pehle, Gerhart Riegner, and my family,

and Introduction by my father, Mr. Edwin Rothschild

Individual endnotes are indicated like this: (1) throughout the diary. Or view complete End notes

To get in touch with the author, send an email to: Elizabeth


2.4.37 (1)
Events are happening so rapidly that I amcompelled to record my thoughts in this diary. Ever since Adolf Hitler wasappointed chancellor on 30 January 1933,(2) life has gottenso bad that I have decided that I must leave.(3) My nameis Hannah Rosen. I’m twenty now and able to think on my own. I live inFriedberg,(4) Germany, and used to go to FriedbergGymnasium before I was thrown out by the Nazis two years ago. Last year, afterher husband died of diabetes, my older sister, Rebecca, and her seven year oldson, Daniel, moved in with my parents. Lisle, my mother, is kind and sympathetic, but worries too much and carries a burden too heavy for her smallshoulders. My father, Karl, is strong and kind. I trust him more than anyother person in the world.

It has been decided. My uncle and aunt, Max and Ruth Riegner, wholive in Chicago, will send me an affidavit(5) so I can geta visa to go to New York. Their son, Gerhart,(6) who livesin Geneva, has written me to tell me that when I get to the United States, Ishould contact Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, who will give me a job at the AmericanJewish Congress (AJC) in New York.(7)

Today, I leave with mixed feelings. My family has lived inFriedberg since the 1600s.(8) I don’t want to leave, but Iknow it is safer in America.(9) I only wish my parents andsister would come with me, instead of being so obstinate.(10) I know I must look forward and not look back. I’ll board the shipproudly with a suitcase in each hand and my diary hidden inside my blouse.

As I enter New York harbor and behold the Statue of Liberty, I feela surge of emotion. How wonderful it is to feel secure again!(11)

I rent a small flat in Manhattan and get ajob at the AJC. I meet Rabbi Wise.(13) I tell him aboutmy family, how I am trying to bring them here, and how I want to urge theRoosevelt administration to let more Jewish refugees into America.

Rebecca wrote me that our family went to visit our old friends, theHeinrichs. I know this means that they have gone into hiding.

The Evian Conference just ended.(14) President Roosevelt had called for it, raising all of our hopes by making itseem as if something would be done. However, nothing was accomplished. Was itall just for show?

I read in The New York Times (NYT) about a pogrom in Germany. Thousands of Jewish shop windows were smashed and hundreds of synagogues burned.(15) I hope my family is safe.

I received a letter from Rebecca relating the destruction on the9th. Father’s shop is a wreck. Rebecca says that all Jews have been strippedof their positions, wealth, and property.(16) Now theNazis propose an income tax for “Nazi charity.”(17) Rebecca has saved a bit of money to give to the Heinrichs to help payfor food. She is crowded in with three other families.

The ship, St. Louis, sailed to Cuba with 900 Jews, was turned away,and then headed to the U.S. coast. The U.S. government didn’t let the refugeesin, forcing them back to Germany.(18) This makes me soangry. We’ve got to find a way to stop this from happening.

Despite the reports of the Jews’ worsening situation, the WJC andother Jewish organizations confront one main obstacle: the unwillingness of theRoosevelt administration and Congress to allow more Jews to immigrate by raisingthe quota limits.(19)

Rebecca informs me that three million books written by or referringto Jews were burned by Nazis.(20) Rebecca now wants tocome to America. I’ll send her an affidavit, but it’s harder to get out ofGermany now.

I have a theory that Roosevelt is straddling the fence. He istaking action, but very little. The “action” is supposed to pleasepeople like me; the “little” is supposed to please the anti-Semites.(21)

Rabbi Wise’s colleague, Dr. Nahum Goldmann,(22) told me how helpful Eleanor Roosevelt has been. Unfortunately, FDR hasbeen listening to the State Department instead of his wife. I hope she’ll beable to convince him to change course, because so many lives are at stake.(23)

I’ve received many letters from Rebecca telling me that Daniel wastaken away.(24) I’m worried about getting Rebecca andDaniel out of Europe. She will only leave with Daniel, and Daniel may be lostforever. The State Department has issued further restrictions on immigration.(25)

How amazing! Rebecca stumbled across an old school friend who washead of the children’s concentration camp where Daniel was held.(26) He asked if there were anything he could do for her, and she told himabout Daniel. Daniel was sent home right away. Rebecca and Daniel are finallycoming to America. However, Mother and Father cannot come until their passportnumbers are called.

The Nyassa,(27) on which Rebecca and Danielare travelling, arrived in port today. What a happy reunion it was. The Nazisare now blocking the exits of the European countries under their control.(28) Rebecca and Daniel were on the last ship! I’m very afraidthat Mother and Father will die. All this news is too much for me. My heart isheavy and will not bear the pain my mind is giving me.

Since Roosevelt signed the Bloom-Van Nuys bill in June,(29) the State Department’s policy on immigration has become evenworse, according to Rabbi Wise. Now, it’s even harder to get into this country.(30)

America has officially entered the war. Maybe this will meanAmerica will allow more Jews to take refuge here.(31)

The New York Herald Tribune (NYHT) finally had a front page storyon the massacre of a million Jews.(32) Though horrifying,this article contains hard facts, however late. I am outraged to have foundsuch a brief article about the killings in Chelmno buried on page five in NYT onJune 27.(33) Even worse, there was only a two-inch articleabout the Bund Report on the same day in NYT.(34) Why isthe plight of the Jews in Europe getting so little attention?

Cousin Gerhart sent me a letter from Geneva explaining the Naziterror(35) and suggested that I ask Rabbi Wise about arecent message he sent. Rabbi Wise discussed Gerhart’s telegram(36) and said that a similar copy had been sent to Sydney Silverman,(37) who then sent it to Rabbi Wise who received it on August 28,three weeks after Gerhart had sent it.(38) The telegramstates that Hitler is now implementing the “Final Solution” to killall remaining Jews. I’m grief-stricken. Oh Gott! Mother! Father! The AJCwants to publicize information about all the atrocities in Europe that theJewish organizations are learning about through very reliable sources. RabbiWise wants U.S. citizens to know about the “Final Solution,” but theState Department wants to withhold the information until it is verified.(39) The AJC knows it must compromise. This is a dilemma. Rabbi Wise is being criticized heavily for complying with the State Department’sposition, but he feels that without government confirmation, the news would bethought of as just more Jewish propaganda. Because he wants the StateDepartment to recommend action to the President, Rabbi Wise knows that he has tocomply. Furthermore, he knows there are many anti-Semites inside and outsidethe government who would not believe the information in the Riegner telegramwithout the government’s corroboration.(40) I agreewhole-heartedly with Rabbi Wise’s decision because the State Department mightnever recommend action if he doesn’t heed them.

NYT carried an announcement on page ten by Rabbi Wise about theslaughter of two million Jews.(41) I feel sick. What isthe world doing about this destruction?

Yesterday on page one, NYHT reported Rabbi Wise’s press conferencein Washington.(42) Rabbi Wise told the world that there isan “extermination campaign” to kill all European Jews. Thiscatastrophe was only reported in NYT on page ten.(43) Today, NYT reported on page sixteen on another press conference held by RabbiWise.(44) Although buried, the article does give a gooddescription of how Rabbi Wise met with many Jewish leaders on the morning of the25th and then told the press that his information had been confirmed by theState Department. I’m thrilled! Rabbi Wise has been pleased about theseevents. I’m sure this means Roosevelt will intervene. My hopes are high andnothing can bring them down.

I scurry about excitedly. Today is the Day of Mourning.(45) It reminds me of the Madison Square Garden rally last July.(46) For a few minutes every radio will be silent, every roadwill be clear to mourn those unfortunate Nazi victims in Europe. Maybe thiswill get America’s politicians’ attention.

I’m seething to find only on page twenty of NYT the account ofRabbi Wise’s meeting with Roosevelt.(47) Rabbi Wise andother Jewish leaders took all their information to Roosevelt and begged him todo all in his power to save the Jews.(48)

There’s finally a front page story in NYT about the atrocities inEurope. It’s really the first public acknowledgement by the U.S. government andten other nations of the mass murder of the Jews.(49) Ihaven’t heard from Mother or Father in so long. I lay awake at night fearingthey’re in a concentration camp.

How terrible! At the Bermuda Conference, the U.S. government hasfailed once again. Just like the Evian Conference in 1938, the U.S. governmenthas been all words and no action.(50)

Rabbi Wise met with FDR yesterday regarding Gerhart’s plan torescue thousands of Rumanian Jews;(51) the President gavehis approval.(52)

Rabbi Wise and Dr. Goldmann introduced me to a young man, JanKarski, working for the Polish underground. Karski met with FDR and informedhim of the fate of Europe’s Jews.

According to Rabbi Wise, the President replied that we will win the war andthat the enemies will be punished.(53) I am disappointedthat this is what Roosevelt told him. Roosevelt cares more about winning thewar than he does about the dying Jews. I am overcome with anger.

Everyone here is talking about Breckinridge Long’s testimony toCongress on America’s immigration policy. Members of Congress are saying helied to the committee about how many Jews had been allowed to enter America.(54) I’m so glad that Representative Celler told everyone thatLong was not telling the truth.(55)

I’ve learned that Breckinridge Long and Sumner Welles tried toprevent sending money to European Jews to help them escape from the Nazis.(56) Treasury Secretary Morgenthau, who pushed for sending themoney, found out about the State Department’s sabotage.(57) I’m exhilarated. Long and the State Department’s policy have beenexposed.

1/17/44 Good news! Rabbi Wise told me about yesterday’s meeting at theWhite House.(58) The conflict within the governmentbetween the State and Treasury Departments(59) may beresolved.

John Pehle was appointed to direct the War Refugee Board (WRB).(60) This is the answer to our prayers and efforts.

Finally, something is really being done.(61)

I heard from Rabbi Wise that the War Department has once againrefused to bomb Auschwitz.(62) How absurd! I know bombingcould kill many Jews, but imagine how many would be saved from annihilation inthe gas chambers. The AJC fought very hard to persuade the government to bombAuschwitz. This time the battle is between John Pehle at the WRB and JohnMcCloy at the War Department. This conflict once again demonstrates America’s unwillingnessto use its power to save Jews. At least the WRB is having some success in otherareas.(63)

Yesterday, the war in Europe finally ended.(64) When I think back, there were so many conflicts with and within theRoosevelt administration about what to do and so many compromises that everyonemade–compromises paid for in Jewish blood. FDR was compromising constantly. On one hand, he told Jewish leaders and important figures, including Karski,that he wanted to do all that he could to help to save the Jews. On the otherhand, he failed to make any policy decisions or do anything concretely to helpuntil he finally created the WRB in early 1944 and appointed Pehle to head it.(65) Still, FDR was a great man because he did all he could todestroy Hitler and win the war. However, winning the war was what came first tohim–not saving the Jews.(66) Aside from the Jewishorganizations, there was no real constituency to persuade him to do bothconcurrently. I think that until 1941, when Europe closed its doors to theoutside world, much more could and should have been done to save the Jews. I’mglad that the war is over, but very disappointed in my adopted country’sgovernment. I grieve for my parents and many of my friends who probably diedbecause FDR was not persuaded to do more to save Europe’s Jews.

I had a wonderful unexpected pleasure today–tea with Jan Karski athis home, after meeting him at a reception for the opening of the HolocaustMuseum in Washington.(67) I told him that I finally hadenough courage to sort through my old belongings and pull out the diary that Ihad written during the Holocaust, starting right before I immigrated to Americain 1937. I even had an entry when Rabbi Wise introduced me to Karski when hefirst came to America in the summer of 1943. So much has happened since then. So many books and articles have been written about what the AJC did and did notdo, and what FDR did and did not do to save the European Jews. I told Karski Ihad read that Pehle said Karski’s visit to FDR had shaken the President upenough to create the WRB. Karski said that he was skeptical of this and thatmaybe Pehle was just being polite. Karski thought that Morgenthau’s pressingRoosevelt was what led directly to the creation of the WRB. Karski stressed tome that there could NEVER be another Holocaust because “now there is aJewish nation–Israel” which would help protect the Jews and be aneffective political lobby.(68) One question will alwayspainfully reverberate in my mind. If the U.S. had done more, would my parentshave been saved?

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    1. In Germany, the way to write the date is day.month.year, so thisfirst entry 2.4.37 means April 2, 1937.
    2. Lucy Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews 1933-1945 (New York: BantamBooks, 1976): 63; Nora Levin, The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry1933-1945 (New York: Schocken Books, 1973): 31; and Paul Johnson, A History ofthe Jews (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, Inc., 1987): 482.
    3. The Nazis imposed many anti-Jewish laws, including the Nuremberg Laws in1935, which forced Jews out of the government and universities; others prevented Jews from selling things to non-Jews. [Gerald Schoenberner, TheYellow Star: The Persecution of the Jews in Europe 1933-1945, trans. SusanSweet (New York: Bantam Books, 1973); Seymour Rossel, The Holocaust: The Worldand the Jew, 1933-1945 (New Jersey: Behrman House, Inc., 1992)]; Ilse Rothschildinterview (Grandmother Ilse Rothschild, interview by author, 4 February 1995,Barrington, RI, tape recording); Erich Rothschild interview (Grandfather ErichRothschild, interview by author, 4 February 1995, Barrington, RI, taperecording); Kurt Rothschild interview (Great Uncle Kurt Rothschild, interview byauthor, 31 January 1995, Glencoe, IL, tape recording.). See also Dawidowicz:63-92; Leni Yahil, The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, trans. InaFriedman and Haya Galai (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990): 53-87; Levin:59-73; Schoenberner: 14-27; Gerhart M. Riegner, “From the Night of thePogrom to the Final Solution: Experiences and Lessons,” transcript of atalk given to the Theological Department of the Humboldt University, Berlin(East Germany) on 25 April 1988, in Christian Jewish Relations 21 (1988): 5-22.
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    4. I chose Friedberg as my hometown because that is where my grandfather,Erich Rothschild, and his brother, Kurt Rothschild, grew up. Friedberg is asmall town about 10 miles north of Frankfurt. [Rand McNally Cosmopolitan WorldAtlas (New York: Rand McNally, 1959): 16.] In 1937 it had about 12,000 peoplewith about 200 Jewish families and very little anti-Semitism. Erich and KurtRothschild interviews.
    5. Kurt Rothschild interview.
    6. The diary writer chose to be Gerhart Riegner’s cousin because he knew whatwas going on and he also had family in the United States. (Swiss World JewishCongress Representative Gerhart M. Riegner, interview with author, 16 and 21February 1995, Geneva, Switzerland, facsimile.) See also Martin Gilbert,Auschwitz and the Allies (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981): 352;Walter Laqueur & Richard Breitman, Breaking the Silence: (New York: Simonand Schuster, 1986): 134-137; Richard Breitman and Alan M. Kraut, AmericanRefugee Policy and European Jewry, 1933-1945 (Bloomington: Indiana UniversityPress, 1987): 148-149.
    7. The American Jewish Congress was part of the World Jewish Congress which played a central role in gathering and publishing information on the Nazipersecution of Europe’s Jews and pressuring the U.S. government to take action. David S. Wyman, Abandonment of the Jews (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984): 68;Yahil: 606-608; Breitman and Kraut: 98-99; Laqueur & Breitman: 133-134.
    8. Kurt Rothschild interview; see map “2000 Years of Jewish Life inEurope,” in Martin Gilbert, Atlas of the Holocaust (New York: PergamonPress, 1993).
    9. “I was lucky that my number came up sooner than a lot of otherpeople’s.” Kurt Rothschild interview.
    10. Many people felt that it was dangerous to stay in Germany, and the peoplewho did stay were making a big mistake. Kurt Rothschild interview.
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    11. See map “Worldwide Reception of German Refugees” in Gilbert,Atlas Holocaust.
    12. The date is now written as it is in America.
    13. Nahum Goldmann and Rabbi Stephen S. Wise founded the WJC. Rabbi Wise wasthe president of the AJC and the most effective American Jewish leader in thefight to rescue Europe’s Jews. See Yahil: 606-607; Gilbert, Auschwitz: 355;Laqueur & Breitman: 133-134.
    14. The Evian Conference was a worldwide meeting called by President Rooseveltin order to find homes for Europe’s refuges. The New York Times (NYT), 14 July1938, p. 15; Levin: 76-77. In David S. Wyman, Paper Walls (New York: Pantheon Books, 1968): 43-50, the author explains that some people believedthat the reason for the Evian Conference was to show anger and disapproval ofthe Nazis–although in the end nothing was accomplished.
    15. Deborah E. Lipstadt, Beyond Belief: The American Press and the Coming ofthe Holocaust, 1933-1945 (New York: The Free Press, 1986): 104; Rita Thalmannand Emmanuel Feinerman, Crystal Night trans. Gilles Cremonesi (New York:Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, Inc., 1974); Schoenberner: 32-34; Riegner, “NightOf Pogrom;” Levin: 80-81; Sanders: 444-450; see map “Destruction ofthe Synagogues” in Gilbert, Atlas Holocaust.
    16. Dawidowicz: 137; Levin: 90-94; Sanders: 453.
    17. Dawidowicz: 138-139; Yahil: 113; Rossel: 27.

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  • The Jews returned to Germany and certain death. NYT 2 June 1939, p. 1;Kurt Rothschild interview; Levin: 141-142; Yahil: 119; Sanders: 466-467;Lipstadt: 116-121; Breitman and Kraut: 70-73; Herbert Druks, The Failure toRescue (New York: Robert Speller & Sons, Publishers, Inc., 1977): 19-25; seemap “The Voyage of the St. Louis” in Martin Gilbert, The IllustratedAtlas of Jewish Civilization: 4,000 Years of Jewish History (New York:Macmillan Publishing Company, 1990).
  • “The Jews of Europe: How to Help Them,” New Republic, 30 August1943, 299-315; Wyman, Abandonment: 5-6; Druks: 8-13; Breitman and Kraut:112-125. In Wyman, Paper Walls: 73-98,Wyman explains that this unwillingnesswas true even with regard to children. Even though Democratic Senator RobertF. Wagner of New York and Republican Representative Edith Nourse Rogers ofMassachusetts introduced the Wagner-Rogers bill to permit 20,000 German refugeechildren under the age of 14 to come to the United States, Congress refused toact. The State Department opposed it and the White House was silent –evenEleanor Roosevelt.
  • 20 Levin: 191.
  • Breitman and Kraut: 236-249.
  • Nahum Goldmann came to America from Geneva in the summer of 1940. SwissWJC Representative Gerhard M. Riegner, communication with author, 4 April 1995,facsimile.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt and the President were in conflict because EleanorRoosevelt wanted FDR to do more to help Jewish refugees, especially children. Doris Kearns Goodwin, No Ordinary Time. Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The HomeFront in World War II (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994).
  • This is based on a true story. Ilse Rothschild interview.
  • Breitman and Kraut: 135; Druks: 12.

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  • This is based on what happened to the author’s great grandfather LouisRothschild. Kurt Rothschild interview.
  • Kurt Rothschild interview.
  • Levin: 186.
  • Breitman and Kraut: 135-136
  • New Republic, 312. According to this article: A few simple figures willshow how immigration has been reduced from year to year until we have reachedthe point at which it has become insignificant. The following are the officialfigures for the total number of immigration visas issued for the war years andemigrant aliens leaving: Number of Emigrant emigrant aliens leaving: Numberof Emigrant Aliens Fiscal Year Immigrants Leaving 1939 82,998 26,651 1940 70,756 21,461 1941 51,776 17,115 1942 28,781 7,363 These figures areespecially significant in the light of the fact that under the law a totalannual immigration of 153,774 is permitted from quota countries alone, which, ofcourse, do not include Canada and other Western Hemisphere countries. Anexamination of the figures shows that within the framework of the existingimmigration law some half-million additional people could have been admittedfrom quota countries.
  • This hope turned out to be dead wrong. Breitman and Kraut: 136.
  • The New York Herald Tribune (NYHT), 30 June 1942, p. 1; Lipstadt: 166.
  • Lipstadt: 164.
  • Wyman, Abandonment: 22.

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  • Riegner interview.
  • This is the famous “Riegner telegram” which provided some of theearliest details of the “Final Solution.” Gerhart M. Riegner,Telegram to Rabbi Stephen S. Wise via the U.S. State Department and via theLondon Foreign Office to Sydney Silverman, August 1942, Geneva, Switzerland, inLaqueur & Breitman; Riegner, “From the Night of the Pogrom,” 21 3(1988): 9-12.
  • Sydney Silverman was the British representative of the WJC and a Member ofParliament who received the telegram August 17 and began a debate in the British Parliament. Monty Noam Penkower, The Jews Were Expendable: Free WorldDiplomacy and the Holocaust, (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1988):65-69; Breitman and Kraut: 148-149; Laqueur & Breitman: 147-152.
  • The State Department held back the telegram from Rabbi Wise because ofconcerns that it might “stir up a fuss”. Laqueur & Breitman:149-152; Wyman, Abandonment: 43-44.
  • Laqueur & Breitman: 152-160; Breitman and Kraut: 152-157; Wyman,Abandonment: 44-51; Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (NewYork, Homes & Meier, 1985): 314-322.
  • Riegner interview; Wyman, Abandonment: 46-55.
  • NYT, 25 November 1942, p. 10.
  • NYHT, 25 November 1942, p. 1; Wyman, Abandonment: 61; Lipstadt: 181.
  • NYT, 25 November 1942, p. 10.
  • NYT, 26 November 1942, p. 16.

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  • NYT, 2 December 1942, p. 12.
  • NYT, 22 July 1942, p. 1.
  • Lipstadt: 186.
  • Laqueur & Breitman: 161-163; Penkower: 85-86.
  • NYT, 18 December 1942, p. 1. Those ten countries included: Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Soviet Union,Britain, and Yugoslavia.
  • NYT, 14 July 1938, p. 15. In NYT, 4 March 1943, p. 9, the U.S. onceagain expresses concern for fate of refugees; Sanders: 532-535; Druks: 39-44;Wyman, Abandonment: 104-123.
  • Letter to Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles, from Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, president of the American Jewish Congress. New York, May 3, 1943 andLetter to U.S. Legation in Bern, from Secretary of State Cordell Hull.Washington, D.C. , May 16, 1943 in America and the Holocaust: A Thirteen VolumeSet Documenting the Editor’s Book, The Abandonment of the Jews, vol. 6, ed. David S. Wyman (Massachusetts: Garland Publishing, 1990).
  • Breitman and Kraut: 184-188.
  • Karski had disguised himself as a policeman to observe inside the WarsawGhetto and the Belzec concentration camp. Gay Block and Malka Drucker,Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust (New York: Holmes &Meier Publishers, Inc., 1992): 173. In this book of interviews, Karski is quotedas saying: ‘I will return to Poland, Mr. President. What shall I tell mypeople?’ Roosevelt replied, ‘You will tell them we shall win the war and theenemy will be punished for their crimes. Justice will prevail. Tell yournation that they have a friend in this house. This is what you will tell them.’ See also E. Thomas Wood and Stanislaw M. Jankowski, Karski: How One Man Triedto Stop the Holocaust, (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994): 196-201;Walter Laqueur, The Terrible Secret: Suppression of the Truth About Hitler’s’Final Solution’ (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1980): 229-238.

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  • The committee was the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House ofRepresentatives. Commenting on Long’s testimony, Rep. Emmanuel Celler said, …Long says that the door to the oppressed is open, but that it “has beencarefully screened.” What he should have said is “barlocked andbolted.” By the act of 1924, we are permitted to admit approximately150,000 immigrants each year. During the last fiscal year only 23,725 came asimmigrants. Of these only 4,705 were Jews fleeing Nazi persecution.
    See “Reportto the Secretary of the Acquiescence of the Government in the Murder of theJews,” initialed by Randolph Paul for the Foreign Funds Control Unit of theTreasury Department, January 13, 1944, in FDR, Morgenthau Diaries 693/212-229 inAmerica and the Holocaust: A Thirteen Volume Set Documenting the Editor’s Book,The Abandonment of the Jews, vol. 6, ed. David S. Wyman (Massachusetts:Garland Publishing, 1990), pp. 228-29.
  • NYT, 11 December 1943, p. 1; “Report to the Secretary.”
  • “Report to the Secretary;” Breitman and Kraut: 188-190.
  • NYT, 2 January 1944, p. 9. Less than two weeks later, Members of Congressalso accused the State Department of sabotage.
  • This refers to the meeting on January 16, 1944 between Treasury Departmentofficials (Secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Randolph Paul and John Pehle) withPresident Roosevelt regarding the State Department’s delay of rescue efforts anddeceiving Congress about how many refugees had entered America. Wyman,Abandonment; “Report to the Secretary;” Breitman and Kraut: 189-190;Yahil: 609.
  • This refers to the conflict between the two Departments, but especially tothe efforts by Breckinridge Long to deceive the Treasury Department. U.S. Government official John W. Pehle, interview by author, 16 February 1995, bytelephone, Montgomery County, MD.
  • NYT, 5 February 1944, p. 7; U. S. President Executive Order 9417,Federal Register, vol. 9, no. 18, 26 January 1944, p. 935; NYT, 6 February1944, p. 26 which reports Allied governments are addressing the refugeeproblem; Wyman, Abandonment: 209-21; Lipstadt: 227-228; Breitman and Kraut: 191.
  • 61 In his interview, John Pehle said: It [WRB] was established very late. The war was almost over. But it changed the policy of the United States. Instead of interfering with Jews being rescued, we had a chance of seeing thatall Jews who could be rescued were. With limited time and resources, it stilldid some good.
  • Martin Gilbert, Auschwitz and the Allies, 303-306; Wyman, Abandonment:291-305; Richard Breitman, “American Inaction During the Holocaust,”Dimensions, February 1994, pp. 7-8.
  • Wyman, Abandonment: 255-287; Breitman and Kraut: 191-219.


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  • Penkower: 285.
  • NYT, 5 February 1944, p. 7; Wyman, Abandonment: 210-215; Breitman: 7;Breitman and Kraut: 191-198.
  • Polish diplomat and rescuer Jan Karski, interview by author, 9 February1995, Chevy Chase, MD.
  • The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum was officially dedicated onApril 23, 1993.
  • Jan Karski interview.

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